Medicare is a federal health insurance program in the United States that provides coverage to eligible individuals, primarily those aged 65 and older, as well as certain younger individuals with disabilities. Medicare is divided into four main parts, each addressing different aspects of healthcare services:

  • Medicare Part A (Hospital Insurance):
      • Part A covers inpatient hospital care, skilled nursing facility care, hospice care, and some home health services.
      • Most people do not have to pay a premium for Part A if they or their spouse have paid Medicare taxes while working.
      • There may be deductibles and coinsurance costs associated with Part A services.
  • Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance):
      • Part B covers outpatient medical services, such as doctor’s visits, preventive care, lab tests, durable medical equipment, and some home health services.
      • It also covers certain medications administered in a clinical setting, like chemotherapy.
      • Individuals are required to pay a monthly premium for Part B, and there are deductibles and coinsurance costs associated with the services it covers.
  • Medicare Part C (Medicare Advantage):
      • Part C, also known as Medicare Advantage, is an alternative way to receive Medicare benefits.
      • Medicare Advantage plans are offered by private insurance companies approved by Medicare and combine the benefits of Parts A and B, often including prescription drug coverage (Part D) and additional benefits like dental and vision.
      • These plans may have their own costs, including premiums, deductibles, and copayments, which can vary by plan.
  • Medicare Part D (Prescription Drug Coverage):
    • Part D provides prescription drug coverage for Medicare participants.
    • It is offered through private insurance companies that are contracted with Medicare.
    • Individuals can choose from a range of Part D plans, each with its own formulary and cost structure, including premiums, deductibles, and copayments.
    • Enrollment in a Part D plan is optional, but there can be penalties for delaying enrollment if you don’t have other creditable prescription drug coverage.


Medicare participants can choose to enroll in Original Medicare (Parts A and B) and, if desired, add a Part D plan to cover prescription drugs. Alternatively, they can opt for a Medicare Advantage plan (Part C) that often includes drug coverage. Many people also purchase supplemental insurance, known as Medigap, to help cover out-of-pocket costs associated with Original Medicare.


It’s important to understand the specifics of each Medicare part and how they work together, as well as to review your options during the annual open enrollment period to make sure you have the coverage that best meets your healthcare needs.